General information about Sokobanja

14.10.2022. 23:16 | |

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The municipality of Sokobanja administratively belongs to the Zaječar district in Timočka Krajina, and includes the urban area, spa and surrounding villages. Make is a total of 25 settlements, of which 24 are village type. Urban settlement Sokobanja is the only city-type settlement in the municipality and represents administrative-administrative, economic, touristic, health and cultural and educational center of the municipality. The territory of the municipality of Sokobanja is surrounded by five neighboring municipalities: it is in the north Boljevac municipality, Knjaževac municipality to the east, Svrljig municipality to the south-east the municipality of Aleksinac, and in the west the municipality of Ražanj. The total area of ​​the municipality of Sokobanja is 525 km2. 3.1.1.

Geographic features

Sokobanja is located at 43º63' north latitude and 21º87' east longitude, u central part Eastern Serbia, on altitude from 400 m. Placed is in the same name basin, surrounded with a wreath of medium height Mountain. Through Sokobanja the river flows Moravica, which on in the west of the basin it builds Bovan lake. For Sokobanja are also connected Butterfly shop, picnic area which is located along the river Moravic is also known medieval town — Sokograd (spa). There is a waterfall near the spa Ripaljka, total height 40 m, with the highest section 11 m.


The Sokobanja basin was formed during the formation of the Carpathians and Balkanids, respectively of the northern orogenic stem of the Mediterranean zone of the European mountains. The relief of the area created is influenced by various factors - tectonic processes, abrasion, erosion, by the accumulation and action of rivers, so that in the area of ​​the Sokobanja basin they can distinguish three units:

1. The valley belt includes the alluvial plain of Moravica and its tributaries. This belt is an average of 1 km wide and follows the course of the river with a gentle slope, so it is in the western part basin (at the entrance to the Bovan gorge) with a height of 252m, while the eastern part is the end (mouth of the Čitlučka River and towards the north along the Sesalačka River) slightly higher and climbs up to 390 m above sea level. The characteristic shape of the relief of the valley belt are river terraces, which the Moravica river outlined with its multi-millennium existence.

2. Transitional belt - the hills represent a transitional belt from the valley belt to the rim basins. This hill climbs both south and north of Moravica. In the west, stronger in the lowered part, that limit goes up to 620m above sea level. Dominant forms relief of the transition zone are the lake terraces, which bear witness to the rhythmic descent lake level in the long period of formation of the relief of the area.

3. The mountain belt represents the rim of the basin, whose altitude ranges from 420m, up to 1560m (Rtanj - Šiljak), and in the south from 420m to 1174m (Ozren - Leskovik) and 1187m (Devica – Čapljinac) (Dakić, 1967, p. 4). In the east, the highest peaks do not exceed 1100m (Slemen 1099m, Krstatac 1070m), while the mountains in the west (Bukovik and Rožanj) have the highest peaks below 900m.

Geological composition

The Sokobanja basin with surrounding mountains represents a typical karst area in which karst landforms are represented by 464 km², which ranks this area on second place in terms of expanse of limestone masses in eastern Serbia, after Kučaj (652 km²). The expanse of limestone implies numerous corrosive surface and speleological ones shapes. Researches in the area of ​​Sokobanja have recorded over fifty karst relief phenomena, which can be classified as pits, underground, caves and collapsed caves. Pedological cover In the pedological composition of the soil in the area around Moravica and the Sesalačka River is dominated by alluvium. Compared to other types of soil, alluvium contains significant amounts of humus and calcareous substances in relation to other types of soil comes first in terms of fertility. The hillside is covered with lake clay deposits, marl, sand and gravel mixed with sandy clay. These lake sediments belong to the soil type called smonica. On the higher parts of the hill there is gajnjace, while in the foothills of the Rtanj podzol occurs to a lesser extent. In the mountainous belt of the basin, especially on the northern, eastern and southern rim, limestone soil prevails - skeletal and skeletoid soil. The mountainous belt of the basin with skeletal soil on the northern rim is located under pastures, and in the south and west under pastures and forest.


Climatic characteristics of Sokobanja are determined by the relief and specificity geomorphological structure of the terrain. In addition to general climatic factors, such as latitude and longitude affect the climatic characteristics of the Sokobanja basin altitude, terrain exposure, direction of mountains and valleys and the openness of the basin towards the south. Bordered and almost completely enclosed by high mountains, the area is climatically unique and differs from the surrounding areas specific temperature fluctuations, rainfall and wind frequency. Such morphological conditions influenced the creation of a special climate, on temperature fluctuations, distribution and height of atmospheric precipitation, frequency and strength winds, that is, on the creation of special climatic characteristics of the basin. Based on the climatic rezoning of Serbia1, the Sokobanj basin is classified as Sokobanj-Knjaževac climatic region, in which moderate- continental climate with warm summers and mild winters and in which the semi-biometric regime is partly influenced by the Mediterranean. Medium the annual fluctuation of air temperature is 22.6°C. The occurrence of temperatures below 0°C is also possible in April, May and October. Air temperature above 10°C occurs in the valley zone of the basin at the end of the first decade of April and lasts throughout until the end of the long decade of October. The duration of these temperatures is from 179 to 193 days. The high daily temperature in the summer is tolerable because of the cold air masses they come down from the surrounding mountains, while the warm ones go up, so the nights are more pleasant. Because of such temperature and other climatic factors Sokobanja enjoys the reputation of a well-known climate sanatoriums.  Air temperature is one of the most important climatic elements for development tourism is of great importance, especially for defining the duration of the tourist season. According to the annual temperature, it can be concluded that the main tourist season it lasts from May to the beginning of October, when all outdoor activities are possible

Bioclimatic characteristics

The bioclimatic characteristics of the area indicate the relationship of the perennial condition atmosphere and living organisms. The bioclimatic impact can be seen in combination climatic variables such as: equivalent temperatures, coldness index, air enthalpy, air cooling power, etc. They are especially important for spa places equivalent temperatures representing the combination of temperature and water vapor. The importance of equivalent temperatures is reflected in the fact that they evoke different sensations heat or cold in healthy and sick people. At equivalent temperatures three weather types and nine feelings of heat or cold are distinguished. On the basis of the annual flow of equivalent temperatures, weather types were determined and physiological feeling of heat in Sokobanja. The cold weather type is represented in November, December, January, February and March. The physiological sensation of heat classified as cold occurs in December, January and February. Physiological feeling of warmth of the type is very cool November and March. Physiological feeling of heat of very cold type is not represented. Pleasant weather occurs in April, May, September and October. Physiological the feeling of warmth of the fresh type is not represented. The class is well represented in April i October. The class is strongly represented in May and September. The overheated type of weather occurs in June, July and August and it is a bit steamy. Classes steamy and very steamy are not represented.


Surface water Waters and wetlands cover about 20 km² and occupy 3.78% of the area of ​​the municipality Sokobanja. In the surface hydrographic system, the main river flow of this area is Moravica, the right tributary of the South Morava. It originates from Tisovik and Izgara, a Moravica is called from the Čitlučki (Moravički) spring called Istoci (Marković, 1977, p. 40). The upper and middle course of the Moravica flows through the Sokobanja basin while in the lower course, after breaking through the Bovan gorge, it flows through the Aleksinac basin.

In addition to Moravica, its tributaries, of which there are 11, are also important for the area's hydrography right and eight left. The most important right tributaries are: Izgara, Sesalačka reka, Vrbovnički stream, Mratinja, etc. Of the left tributaries, the following stand out: Duboki potok, Gradašnica, Čucunjski stream, Poružnička river, Lukovički stream, etc. Thanks to the water potential on the Moravica River, the reservoir "Bovan" was built. which belongs to the Moravian sub-system as part of the Lower-South Moravian regional system. Bovan Lake is 10 km from Sokobanja and 13 km from Aleksinac. Lake is about 8 km long, and covers an area of ​​450 ha. The greatest depth is about 50 m while two-thirds of the lake has an average depth of 6 to 10 m. At the confluence of Moravica and the lake, approx at the average water level, the depth is about 2-2.5 m. The existing accumulation is intended water supply to settlements in the municipalities of Sokobanja, Aleksinac and Ražanj, as well as one of a smaller number of villages in the town of Kruševac and the municipality of Paraćin. In addition to this accumulation in the plan is the construction of seven more smaller reservoirs. In addition to Bovanski, there is also a much smaller Vrmdžan lake, which is located nearby of the village of the same name, on the southern slopes of Rtnja. The lake is of karst origin, has an oval shape shape and width is up to 50 m. An attractive hydrogeological phenomenon of the area is the "Ripaljka" waterfall, which is located in near Sokobanja on the Gradašnica river, at an altitude of 420 m. The waterfall it consists of 11 sections, the total height of which is about 40 m. The height of the highest section is 11m. The waterfall is most attractive in the spring, when there is the most water after the snow has melted. The waterfall "Ripaljka" is the first monument of nature, a protected asset in our country, by the decision of the Institute for the Protection and Scientific Study of Natural Rarities in the Republic of Serbia, in 1949.

Thermomineral waters

The thermal mineral waters of Sokobanja, due to their geographical distribution, belong to the Carpatho-Balkanida region. According to the type of release, these are karst waters. Based temperature, the thermal ones include waters from the Sokobanjska spa, Lepterija and Spa Josanjica, and hypothermic waters (above 39ºC) include waters from "Sonda Park" and "Bunar" Transfiguration", located in the central city park. Based on the pH value, the waters of Sokobanjska Banjica are classified as neutral (6.8-7.2) and Butterflies, and in slightly alkaline (7.2-8.5) "Sonda Park" and "Bunar Preobraženje". Based on the size of the mineralization of the occurrence of mineral waters in the area of ​​Sokobanja, with with mineralization up to 1g/l, they belong to slightly mineralized water. According to the gas composition, these are nitrogen-type waters. The basic chemical compositions confirm that the waters of Sokobanja belong to the hydrocarbonate group HCO3 class. Based on their cation composition, they belong to the calcium-magnesium (Ca–Mg) subclass water. Based on the radioactivity of Sokobanja water, they can be classified as low radon- radium waters. The capacity of Sokobanja water is over 3,000 l/m and 6 to 7 liters of gas per minute.

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